Dual codes are too indeterminate
Dual codes are inadequate as they're too ambiguous to provide for correspondences between pictures and words. Moving from pictures to words and vice versa requires an underlying intermediary code, or interlingua, to mediate the two realms.
For example, someone shown a picture of some unchained picture of a rose doesn’t know whether the word to associate with it is "rose", "flower", "plant", or another word.

Zenon Pylyshyn (1973).
Artificial Intelligence »Artificial Intelligence
Can computers think? [1] »Can computers think? [1]
No: computers can't understand images [5b] »No: computers can't understand images [5b]
Images are secondary to propositions »Images are secondary to propositions
Dual code theory explains knowledge adequately »Dual code theory explains knowledge adequately
Dual codes are too indeterminate
Propositional codes aren't required »Propositional codes aren't required
Zenon Pylyshyn »Zenon Pylyshyn
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