Ocean faces multiple, interconnected threats
The ocean faces a multitude of interconnected threats that is unprecedented in modern history.

Links between threats to the global oceans (in boxes outside the circle) and the nine planetary boundaries identified in Rockström, J., et al. (2009), A safe operating space for humanity, Nature, 461(24 September), 472-475. Note that one of these boundaries – ocean acidification – is identical to one of the six ocean threats. ‘N&P’ refers to nitrogen and phosphorus.

From: SEI – Valuing the Ocean)

Planet Under Pressure »Planet Under Pressure
1. State of the Planet »1. State of the Planet
Ocean faces multiple, interconnected threats
5. Managing risks »5. Managing risks
Interrelated issues? »Interrelated issues?
Collapse of Ocean Fisheries »Collapse of Ocean Fisheries
Ocean acidification »Ocean acidification
Risk of ocean salinity decline »Risk of ocean salinity decline
Valuing the Ocean »Valuing the Ocean
Ocean De-oxygenation »Ocean De-oxygenation
Observed changes in the climate system »Observed changes in the climate system
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