Computational structure necessary to consciousness
Consciousness requires: low-level parallel processors operating on distributed symbols; hierarchical processors that plan, set goals, and monitor the lower-level processors; higher-level processors with serial structure to monitor the lower levels.
The highest level processor generates consciousness in the robot. A representation of the processor's own operations (used as a guide to behaviour) generates self reflection.

Philip Johnson-Laird (1988a).
Artificial Intelligence »Artificial Intelligence
Can computers think? [1] »Can computers think? [1]
No: computers can't be conscious [6] »No: computers can't be conscious [6]
Higher-order representational structures »Higher-order representational structures
Computational structure necessary to consciousness
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